Drums are classed as membranophones and consist of a skin or “drumhead” stretched over the open end of a frame or “shell”. Well known African drums include the Djembe and the Talking drum.
African rhythmic structure is entirely divisive in nature but may divide time into different fractions at the same time, typically by the use of hemiola or three-over-two (3:2), which Novotney has called the foundation of all West African polyrhythmic textures. It is the interplay of several elements, inseparable and equally essential, that produces the “varying rhythmic densities or motions” of cross-rhythmic texture. 3 and 2 belong to a single Gestalt.
Cross-rhythm is the basis for much of the music of the Niger–Congo peoples, speakers of the largest language family in Africa. For example it “pervades southern Ewe music”. (Volta Region of Ghana, border with Togo (formals “Deutsch Togoland” – till 1923)